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A fork in the road: Which energy pathway offers the greatest energy efficiency and CO<inf>2</inf> reduction potential for low-carbon vehicles?

Haugen, MJ and Paoli, L and Cullen, J and Cebon, D and Boies, AM (2021) A fork in the road: Which energy pathway offers the greatest energy efficiency and CO<inf>2</inf> reduction potential for low-carbon vehicles? Applied Energy, 283. ISSN 0306-2619

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Abstract

A future energy system for road transport requires optimised energy use and primary energy decarbonisation to achieve global CO reduction goals. Simultaneously decarbonising transport with other sectors of the economy places additional demands on limited low-carbon energy sources, requiring efficient processes within a fuel pathway from energy source to -energy use. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and fuel-cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are low-carbon options that reduce tailpipe emissions, but differ in overall efficiency, associated carbon intensity, and cost. Current commercialised technologies, as well as theoretical maximums, are aggregated in a stochastic analysis to quantify the energy efficiency and CO differences for BEV and FCEV energy systems. Carbon capture and storage improves source-to-wheels CO intensity for hydrogen produced from steam methane reformation (27 gCO /km with carbon capture and store and 140 gCO /km without for light-duty FCEVs). Light-duty BEVs have a lower CO intensity (11 gCO /km) using decarbonised grid electricity and are 65% more efficient than light-duty FCEVs using grid energy. These effects translate to heavy-good vehicles but with added complexity. In a maximised trailer volume scenario, electric and fuel-cell heavy-good vehicles have similar projected carbon intensities from a natural gas primary energy source, but electric heavy-good vehicle using conventional battery systems or an electric road system are able to achieve a 55% and 67% carbon reduction (gCO /m km) compared to fuel-cell heavy-goods vehicles, respectively. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3

Item Type: Article
Subjects: UNSPECIFIED
Divisions: Div C > Applied Mechanics
Div A > Energy
Div E > Sustainable Manufacturing
Depositing User: Cron Job
Date Deposited: 30 Nov 2020 20:02
Last Modified: 10 Apr 2021 23:13
DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.116295