Howes, TE and Rogers, PM and Little, JA and Hutchings, IM (1995) Erosion-corrosion of mild steel in a temperature gradient. Wear, 186-18. pp. 316-324. ISSN 0043-1648Full text not available from this repository.
Thinning of heat-exchanger tubes by erosion-corrosion has been a problem in fluidized bed combustors (FBCs), particularly at lower metal temperatures where thicker, mechanically protective oxide scales are unable to form. Many laboratory-scale tests have shown a decrease in material loss at higher temperatures, in a similar manner to FBC boilers, but also show a decrease in wastage at low temperatures (e.g. 200°C) which has not been detected in boilers. It has been suggested that this difference is due to laboratory tests being carried out isothermally whereas in a FBC boiler the fluidized bed is considerably hotter than the metal heat exchanger tubing. In this laboratory study the simulation was therefore improved by internally cooling one of the two low carbon steel specimens. These were rotated in a horizontal plane within a lightly fluidized bed with relative particle velocities of 1.3-2.5 m s-1. Tests were carried out over a range of bed temperatures (200-500°C) and cooled specimen surface temperatures (115-500°C), with a maximum temperature difference between the two of 320°C. Although specimens exposed isothermally still showed maximum wastage at intermediate temperatures (about 350°C), those which were cooled showed high levels of wastage at temperatures as low as 200°C in a similar manner to FBC boilers. Cooling may modify the isothermal erosion-corrosion curve, causing it to broaden and the maximum wastage rate to shift to lower temperatures. © 1995.
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