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Earthquakes, influenza and cycles of Indian kala-azar.

Dye, C and Wolpert, DM (1988) Earthquakes, influenza and cycles of Indian kala-azar. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 82. pp. 843-850. ISSN 0035-9203

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Abstract

It is suggested that previous data indicate 3 major epidemics of kala-azar in Assam between 1875 and 1950, with inter-epidemic periods of 30-45 and 20 years. This deviates from the popular view of regular cycles with a 10-20 year period. A deterministic mathematical model of kala-azar is used to find the simplest explanation for the timing of the 3 epidemics, paying particular attention to the role of extrinsic (drugs, natural disasters, other infectious diseases) versus intrinsic (host and vector dynamics, birth and death rates, immunity) processes in provoking the second. We conclude that, whilst widespread influenza in 1918-1919 may have magnified the second epidemic, intrinsic population processes provide the simplest explanation for its timing and synchrony throughout Assam. The model also shows that the second inter-epidemic period is expected to be shorter than the first, even in the absence of extrinsic agents, and highlights the importance of a small fraction of patients becoming chronically infectious (with post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis) after treatment during an epidemic.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Disasters Disease Outbreaks Humans India Influenza, Human Leishmaniasis, Visceral Mathematics Models, Theoretical Time Factors
Subjects: UNSPECIFIED
Divisions: Div F > Computational and Biological Learning
Depositing User: Cron Job
Date Deposited: 07 Mar 2014 11:33
Last Modified: 25 Aug 2014 01:10
DOI:

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