Bolton, MD and Steedman, RS (1985) BEHAVIOUR OF FIXED CANTILEVER WALLS SUBJECT TO LATERAL SHAKING. pp. 301-313.Full text not available from this repository.
A programme of research on the seismic behaviour of retaining walls has been under way at Cambridge since 1981. Centrifuge tests have presently been conducted both on cantilever walls and isolated mass walls, retaining dry sands of varying grading and density. This paper is devoted to the modelling of fixed-base cantilever walls retaining Leighton Buzzard (14/25) sand of relative density 99% with a horizontal surface level with the crest of the wall. The base of the centrifuge container was used to fix the walls, and to provide a rigid lower boundary for the sand. No attempt was made to inhibit the propagation of compression waves from the side of the container opposite the inside face of the model wall. The detailed analysis of dynamic deflections and bending moments was made difficult by the anelastic nature of reinforced concrete, and the difficulty of measuring bending strains thereon. A supplementary programme of well-instrumented tests on Dural walls of similar stiffness, including the modelling of models, was therefore carried out. Refs.
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