Li, FM and Waddingham, R and Milne, WI and Flewitt, AJ and Speakman, S and Dutson, J and Wakeham, S and Thwaites, M (2011) Low temperature (< 100 °c) deposited P-type cuprous oxide thin films: Importance of controlled oxygen and deposition energy. Thin Solid Films, 520. pp. 1278-1284. ISSN 0040-6090Full text not available from this repository.
With the emergence of transparent electronics, there has been considerable advancement in n-type transparent semiconducting oxide (TSO) materials, such as ZnO, InGaZnO, and InSnO. Comparatively, the availability of p-type TSO materials is more scarce and the available materials are less mature. The development of p-type semiconductors is one of the key technologies needed to push transparent electronics and systems to the next frontier, particularly for implementing p-n junctions for solar cells and p-type transistors for complementary logic/circuits applications. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is one of the most promising candidates for p-type TSO materials. This paper reports the deposition of Cu2O thin films without substrate heating using a high deposition rate reactive sputtering technique, called high target utilisation sputtering (HiTUS). This technique allows independent control of the remote plasma density and the ion energy, thus providing finer control of the film properties and microstructure as well as reducing film stress. The effect of deposition parameters, including oxygen flow rate, plasma power and target power, on the properties of Cu2O films are reported. It is known from previously published work that the formation of pure Cu2O film is often difficult, due to the more ready formation or co-formation of cupric oxide (CuO). From our investigation, we established two key concurrent criteria needed for attaining Cu2O thin films (as opposed to CuO or mixed phase CuO/Cu2O films). First, the oxygen flow rate must be kept low to avoid over-oxidation of Cu2O to CuO and to ensure a non-oxidised/non-poisoned metallic copper target in the reactive sputtering environment. Secondly, the energy of the sputtered copper species must be kept low as higher reaction energy tends to favour the formation of CuO. The unique design of the HiTUS system enables the provision of a high density of low energy sputtered copper radicals/ions, and when combined with a controlled amount of oxygen, can produce good quality p-type transparent Cu2O films with electrical resistivity ranging from 102 to 104 Ω-cm, hole mobility of 1-10 cm2/V-s, and optical band-gap of 2.0-2.6 eV. These material properties make this low temperature deposited HiTUS Cu 2O film suitable for fabrication of p-type metal oxide thin film transistors. Furthermore, the capability to deposit Cu2O films with low film stress at low temperatures on plastic substrates renders this approach favourable for fabrication of flexible p-n junction solar cells. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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