Graham, OS and Dowling, AP (2011) *Low-order modelling of ducted flames with temporally varying equivalence ratio in realistic geometries.* Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, 2. pp. 277-288.

## Abstract

The interaction between unsteady heat release and acoustic pressure oscillations in gas turbines results in self-excited combustion oscillations which can potentially be strong enough to cause significant structural damage to the combustor. Correctly predicting the interaction of these processes, and anticipating the onset of these oscillations can be difficult. In recent years much research effort has focused on the response of premixed flames to velocity and equivalence ratio perturbations. In this paper, we develop a flame model based on the socalled G-Equation, which captures the kinematic evolution of the flame surfaces, under the assumptions of axisymmetry, and ignoring vorticity and compressibility. This builds on previous work by Dowling [1], Schuller et al. [2], Cho & Lieuwen [3], among many others, and extends the model to a realistic geometry, with two intersecting flame surfaces within a non-uniform velocity field. The inputs to the model are the free-stream velocity perturbations, and the associated equivalence ratio perturbations. The model also proposes a time-delay calculation wherein the time delay for the fuel convection varies both spatially and temporally. The flame response from this model was compared with experiments conducted by Balachandran [4, 5], and found to show promising agreement with experimental forced case. To address the primary industrial interest of predicting self-excited limit cycles, the model has then been linked with an acoustic network model to simulate the closed-loop interaction between the combustion and acoustic processes. This has been done both linearly and nonlinearly. The nonlinear analysis is achieved by applying a describing function analysis in the frequency domain to predict the limit cycle, and also through a time domain simulation. In the latter case, the acoustic field is assumed to remain linear, with the nonlinearity in the response of the combustion to flow and equivalence ratio perturbations. A transfer function from unsteady heat release to unsteady pressure is obtained from a linear acoustic network model, and the corresponding Green function is used to provide the input to the flame model as it evolves in the time domain. The predicted unstable frequency and limit cycle are in good agreement with experiment, demonstrating the potential of this approach to predict instabilities, and as a test bench for developing control strategies. Copyright © 2011 by ASME.

Item Type: | Article |
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Uncontrolled Keywords: | Combustion instabilities G-equation Gas turbines Premixed flames Thermoacoustics |

Subjects: | UNSPECIFIED |

Divisions: | Div A > Fluid Mechanics |

Depositing User: | Cron job |

Date Deposited: | 04 Feb 2015 22:50 |

Last Modified: | 05 Feb 2015 07:35 |

DOI: |