Afshar, P and Brown, M and Wang, H and MacIejowski, J (2011) Product scheduling for thermal energy reduction in papermaking industries. IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), 18. pp. 6957-6962. ISSN 1474-6670Full text not available from this repository.
Papermaking is considered as an energy-intensive industry partly due to the fact that the machinery and procedures have been designed at the time when energy was both cheap and plentiful. A typical paper machine manufactures a variety of different products (grades) which impose variable per-unit raw material and energy costs to the mill. It is known that during a grade change operation the products are not market-worthy. Therefore, two different production regimes, i.e. steady state and grade transition can be recognised in papermaking practice. Among the costs associated with paper manufacture, the energy cost is 'more variable' due to (usually) day-to-day variations of the energy prices. Moreover, the production of a grade is often constrained by customer delivery time requirements. Given the above constraints and production modes, the product scheduling technique proposed in this paper aims at optimising the sequence of orders in a single machine so that the cost of production (mainly determined by the energy) is minimised. Simulation results obtained from a commercial board machine in the UK confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. © 2011 IFAC.
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