Singer, T and Seymour, B and O'Doherty, JP and Stephan, KE and Dolan, RJ and Frith, CD (2006) Empathic neural responses are modulated by the perceived fairness of others. Nature, 439. pp. 466-469.Full text not available from this repository.
The neural processes underlying empathy are a subject of intense interest within the social neurosciences. However, very little is known about how brain empathic responses are modulated by the affective link between individuals. We show here that empathic responses are modulated by learned preferences, a result consistent with economic models of social preferences. We engaged male and female volunteers in an economic game, in which two confederates played fairly or unfairly, and then measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while these same volunteers observed the confederates receiving pain. Both sexes exhibited empathy-related activation in pain-related brain areas (fronto-insular and anterior cingulate cortices) towards fair players. However, these empathy-related responses were significantly reduced in males when observing an unfair person receiving pain. This effect was accompanied by increased activation in reward-related areas, correlated with an expressed desire for revenge. We conclude that in men (at least) empathic responses are shaped by valuation of other people's social behaviour, such that they empathize with fair opponents while favouring the physical punishment of unfair opponents, a finding that echoes recent evidence for altruistic punishment.
|Additional Information:||PMCID: PMC2636868|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Brain Empathy Female Game Theory Humans Learning Magnetic Resonance Imaging Male Nucleus Accumbens Pain Photic Stimulation Punishment Reward Sex Characteristics Social Justice|
|Divisions:||Div F > Computational and Biological Learning|
|Depositing User:||Cron Job|
|Date Deposited:||28 Apr 2013 10:10|
|Last Modified:||12 Dec 2013 19:02|
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