Kayes, D and Liu, H and Hochgreb, S (1999) Particulate matter emission during start-up and transient operation of a spark-ignition engine. SAE Technical Papers.Full text not available from this repository.
In order to understand why emissions of Particulate Matter (PM) from Spark-Ignition (SI) automobiles peak during periods of transient operation such as rapid accelerations, a study of controlled, repeatable transients was performed. Time-resolved engine-out PM emissions from a modern four-cylinder engine during transient load and air/fuel ratio operation were examined, and the results could be fit in most cases to a first order time response. The time constants for the transient response are similar to those measured for changes in intake valve temperature, reflecting the strong dependence of PM emissions on the amount of liquid fuel in the combustion chamber. In only one unrepeatable case did the time response differ from a first order function: showing an overshoot in PM emissions during transition from the initial to the final steady state PM emission level. PM emissions during controlled, motored start-up experiments show a peak at start-up followed by a period during which emissions are either relatively constant or drift somewhat. When the fuel injection and ignition are shut off, PM emissions also peak briefly, but rapidly decay to low levels. Qualitative implications on the study and modeling of PM emissions during transient engine operation are discussed. Copyright © 1999 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.
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