Bishop, JDK and Axon, CJ and Bonilla, D and Tran, M and Banister, D and McCulloch, MD (2013) Evaluating the impact of V2G services on the degradation of batteries in PHEV and EV. Applied Energy, 111. pp. 206-218. ISSN 0306-2619Full text not available from this repository.
Many researchers and industry observers claim that electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) could provide vehicle-to-grid (V2G) bulk energy and ancillary services to an electricity network. This work quantified the impact on various battery characteristics whilst providing such services. The sensitivity of the impact of V2G services on battery degradation was assessed for EV and PHEV for different battery capacities, charging regimes, and battery depth of discharge. Battery degradation was found to be most dependent on energy throughput for both the EV and PHEV powertrains, but was most sensitive to charging regime (for EVs) and battery capacity (for PHEVs). When providing ancillary services, battery degradation in both powertrains was most sensitive to individual vehicle battery depth of discharge. Degradation arising from both bulk energy and ancillary services could be minimised by reducing the battery capacity of the vehicle, restricting the number of hours connected and reducing the depth of discharge of each vehicle for ancillary services. Regardless, best case minimum impacts of providing V2G services are severe such as to require multiple battery pack replacements over the vehicle lifetime. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
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|Last Modified:||26 Sep 2016 02:04|