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In situ observations of the atomistic mechanisms of Ni catalyzed low temperature graphene growth.

Patera, LL and Africh, C and Weatherup, RS and Blume, R and Bhardwaj, S and Castellarin-Cudia, C and Knop-Gericke, A and Schloegl, R and Comelli, G and Hofmann, S and Cepek, C (2013) In situ observations of the atomistic mechanisms of Ni catalyzed low temperature graphene growth. ACS Nano, 7. pp. 7901-7912.

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Abstract

The key atomistic mechanisms of graphene formation on Ni for technologically relevant hydrocarbon exposures below 600 °C are directly revealed via complementary in situ scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For clean Ni(111) below 500 °C, two different surface carbide (Ni2C) conversion mechanisms are dominant which both yield epitaxial graphene, whereas above 500 °C, graphene predominantly grows directly on Ni(111) via replacement mechanisms leading to embedded epitaxial and/or rotated graphene domains. Upon cooling, additional carbon structures form exclusively underneath rotated graphene domains. The dominant graphene growth mechanism also critically depends on the near-surface carbon concentration and hence is intimately linked to the full history of the catalyst and all possible sources of contamination. The detailed XPS fingerprinting of these processes allows a direct link to high pressure XPS measurements of a wide range of growth conditions, including polycrystalline Ni catalysts and recipes commonly used in industrial reactors for graphene and carbon nanotube CVD. This enables an unambiguous and consistent interpretation of prior literature and an assessment of how the quality/structure of as-grown carbon nanostructures relates to the growth modes.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: UNSPECIFIED
Divisions: Div B > Solid State Electronics and Nanoscale Science
Depositing User: Cron Job
Date Deposited: 07 Mar 2014 11:23
Last Modified: 13 Oct 2014 01:13
DOI: 10.1021/nn402927q

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