Posson, H and Peake, N (2013) *The acoustic analogy in an annular duct with swirling mean flow.* Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 726. pp. 439-475. ISSN 0022-1120

## Abstract

This paper is concerned with modelling the effects of swirling flow on turbomachinery noise. We develop an acoustic analogy to predict sound generation in a swirling and sheared base flow in an annular duct, including the presence of moving solid surfaces to account for blade rows. In so doing we have extended a number of classical earlier results, including Ffowcs Williams & Hawkings' equation in a medium at rest with moving surfaces, and Lilley's equation for a sheared but non-swirling jet. By rearranging the Navier-Stokes equations we find a single equation, in the form of a sixth-order differential operator acting on the fluctuating pressure field on the left-hand side and a series of volume and surface source terms on the right-hand side; the form of these source terms depends strongly on the presence of swirl and radial shear. The integral form of this equation is then derived, using the Green's function tailored to the base flow in the (rigid) duct. As is often the case in duct acoustics, it is then convenient to move into temporal, axial and azimuthal Fourier space, where the Green's function is computed numerically. This formulation can then be applied to a number of turbomachinery noise sources. For definiteness here we consider the noise produced downstream when a steady distortion flow is incident on the fan from upstream, and compare our results with those obtained using a simplistic but commonly used Doppler correction method. We show that in all but the simplest case the full inclusion of swirl within an acoustic analogy, as described in this paper, is required. © 2013 Cambridge University Press.

Item Type: | Article |
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Subjects: | UNSPECIFIED |

Divisions: | Div A > Energy |

Depositing User: | Cron Job |

Date Deposited: | 18 May 2016 17:43 |

Last Modified: | 30 May 2016 07:18 |

DOI: | 10.1017/jfm.2013.210 |