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The Influence of High-Impact Exercise on Cortical and Trabecular Bone Mineral Content and 3D Distribution Across the Proximal Femur in Older Men: A Randomized Controlled Unilateral Intervention.

Allison, SJ and Poole, KES and Treece, GM and Gee, AH and Tonkin, C and Rennie, WJ and Folland, JP and Summers, GD and Brooke-Wavell, K (2015) The Influence of High-Impact Exercise on Cortical and Trabecular Bone Mineral Content and 3D Distribution Across the Proximal Femur in Older Men: A Randomized Controlled Unilateral Intervention. J Bone Miner Res, 30. pp. 1709-1716.

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Abstract

Regular exercisers have lower fracture risk, despite modest effects of exercise on bone mineral content (BMC). Exercise may produce localized cortical and trabecular bone changes that affect bone strength independently of BMC. We previously demonstrated that brief, daily unilateral hopping exercises increased femoral neck BMC in the exercise leg versus the control leg of older men. This study evaluated the effects of these exercises on cortical and trabecular bone and its 3D distribution across the proximal femur, using clinical CT. Fifty healthy men had pelvic CT scans before and after the exercise intervention. We used hip QCT analysis to quantify BMC in traditional regions of interest and estimate biomechanical variables. Cortical bone mapping localized cortical mass surface density and endocortical trabecular density changes across each proximal femur, which involved registration to a canonical proximal femur model. Following statistical parametric mapping, we visualized and quantified statistically significant changes of variables over time in both legs, and significant differences between legs. Thirty-four men aged mean (SD) 70 (4) years exercised for 12-months, attending 92% of prescribed sessions. In traditional regions of interest, cortical and trabecular BMC increased over time in both legs. Cortical BMC at the trochanter increased more in the exercise than control leg, whereas femoral neck buckling ratio declined more in the exercise than control leg. Across the entire proximal femur, cortical mass surface density increased significantly with exercise (2.7%; p < 0.001), with larger changes (> 6%) at anterior and posterior aspects of the femoral neck and anterior shaft. Endocortical trabecular density also increased (6.4%; p < 0.001), with localized changes of > 12% at the anterior femoral neck, trochanter, and inferior femoral head. Odd impact exercise increased cortical mass surface density and endocortical trabecular density, at regions that may be important to structural integrity. These exercise-induced changes were localized rather than being evenly distributed across the proximal femur.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: COMPUTATIONAL ANATOMY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY EXERCISE HIP FRACTURE MALES Absorptiometry, Photon Aged Aged, 80 and over Biomechanical Phenomena Bone Density Bone and Bones Exercise Exercise Therapy Femur Femur Neck Hip Fractures Humans Imaging, Three-Dimensional Male Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Subjects: UNSPECIFIED
Divisions: Div F > Machine Intelligence
Depositing User: Cron Job
Date Deposited: 17 Jul 2017 19:08
Last Modified: 14 Sep 2017 01:27
DOI: