CUED Publications database

Structural determinants of hydration, mechanics and fluid flow in freeze-dried collagen scaffolds.

Offeddu, GS and Ashworth, JC and Cameron, RE and Oyen, ML (2016) Structural determinants of hydration, mechanics and fluid flow in freeze-dried collagen scaffolds. Acta Biomater, 41. pp. 193-203.

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UNLABELLED: Freeze-dried scaffolds provide regeneration templates for a wide range of tissues, due to their flexibility in physical and biological properties. Control of structure is crucial for tuning such properties, and therefore scaffold functionality. However, the common approach of modeling these scaffolds as open-cell foams does not fully account for their structural complexity. Here, the validity of the open-cell model is examined across a range of physical characteristics, rigorously linking morphology to hydration and mechanical properties. Collagen scaffolds with systematic changes in relative density were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography and spherical indentation analyzed in a time-dependent poroelastic framework. Morphologically, all scaffolds were mid-way between the open- and closed-cell models, approaching the closed-cell model as relative density increased. Although pore size remained constant, transport pathway diameter decreased. Larger collagen fractions also produced greater volume swelling on hydration, although the change in pore diameter was constant, and relatively small at ∼6%. Mechanically, the dry and hydrated scaffold moduli varied quadratically with relative density, as expected of open-cell materials. However, the increasing pore wall closure was found to determine the time-dependent nature of the hydrated scaffold response, with a decrease in permeability producing increasingly elastic rather than viscoelastic behavior. These results demonstrate that characterizing the deviation from the open-cell model is vital to gain a full understanding of scaffold biophysical properties, and provide a template for structural studies of other freeze-dried biomaterials. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Freeze-dried collagen sponges are three-dimensional microporous scaffolds that have been used for a number of exploratory tissue engineering applications. The characterization of the structure-properties relationships of these scaffolds is necessary to understand their biophysical behavior in vivo. In this work, the relationship between morphology and physical properties in the dry and hydrated states was investigated across a range of solid concentrations in the scaffolds. The quantitative results provided can aid the design of scaffolds with a target trade-off between mechanical properties and structural features important for their biological activity.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Collagen scaffolds Indentation Micro-CT Poroelasticity Scaffold swelling Animals Biomechanical Phenomena Cattle Collagen Elastic Modulus Freeze Drying Permeability Porosity Rheology Tissue Scaffolds Water X-Ray Microtomography
Divisions: Div C > Biomechanics
Depositing User: Cron Job
Date Deposited: 17 Jul 2017 19:34
Last Modified: 14 Jun 2018 01:43