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Charge transfer in carbon nanotube actuators investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy

Gupta, S and Hughes, M and Windle, AH and Robertson, J (2004) Charge transfer in carbon nanotube actuators investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Applied Physics, 95. pp. 2038-2048. ISSN 0021-8979

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Abstract

Charge transfer dynamics on the surface of single-wall carbon nanotube sheets is investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy in order to understand the actuation mechanism of an electrochemical actuator and to determine associated parameters. We built an actuator from single-wall carbon nanotube mat and studied its actuation in several alkali metal (Li, Na, and K) and alkaline earth (Ca) halide and sulfate solutions in order to clarify the role of counterion as mobile ions in the film. The variation of bonding with applied potential was monitored using in situ Raman spectroscopy. This is because Raman can detect changes in C-C bond length: the radial breathing mode at similar to190 cm(-1) varies inversely with the nanotube diameter, and the G band at similar to1590 cm(-1) varies with the axial bond length. In addition, the intensities of both the modes vary with the emptying/depleting or filling of the bonding and antibonding states due to electrochemical charge injection. We discussed the variation of peak height and wave numbers of these modes providing valuable information concerning electrochemical charge injection on the carbon nanotube mat surface. We found in-plane microscopic compressive strain (similar to-0.25%) and the equivalent charge transfer per carbon atom (f(c)similar to-0.005) as an upper bound for the actuators studied hereby. It is demonstrated that though the present analysis does comply with the proposition for the actuation principle made earlier, the quantitative estimates are significantly lower if compared with those of reported values. Furthermore, the extent of variation, i.e., coupled electro-chemo-mechanical response of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) mat depended upon the type of counterion used (Group I versus Group II). The cyclic voltammetry and ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results were described briefly, which help to demonstrate well-developed capacitive behavior of SWNT mat and to estimate the specific capacitances as well. Summarizing, the impact of these findings on the suitability of such material for use in electrochemical devices such as actuators is emphasized. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: graphite storage BUNDLES electronic-structure hydrogen lithium neutron-diffraction scattering bond-length electrochemical intercalation
Subjects: UNSPECIFIED
Divisions: Div B > Solid State Electronics and Nanoscale Science
Depositing User: Cron Job
Date Deposited: 07 Mar 2014 11:21
Last Modified: 01 Sep 2014 01:02
DOI: 10.1063/1.1641518

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